Using IIS Express in vs-welcome-page

2013-05-29 17:35:18 +0000

So, why did I use IIS Express to implement my vs-welcome-page extension? I’m using Nancy, so why didn’t I just use the self-hosting support and host it inside Visual Studio instead?

Because of a misunderstanding about URL ACLs. The HTTP stack in Windows allows you to bind multiple processes to the same port number, as long as they use different URL “prefixes” (namespaces, if you like).

However, in order to prevent malicious processes binding to well-known URLs, Windows has the concept of URL ACLs, which control which user accounts can bind to while prefixes.

Previously, when I’ve used Nancy, and I’ve attempted to listen on an address as follows:

const string prefix = "http://localhost:10250/";
var host = new NancyHost(new Uri(prefix));
host.Start();

…I’ve received an “Access Denied” exception. When using IIS Express, I’ve not seen this. I just guessed that IIS Express had some magic in it that allowed it to subvert the rules, and (since this was a weekend project) I didn’t bother investigating any further.

Today, however, I had an opportunity to investigate this. I started with HttpListener:

const string prefix = "http://localhost:10250/";
var listener = new HttpListener();
listener.Prefixes.Add(prefix);
listener.Start();

… and this works fine. It appears that you don’t need URL ACLs to bind to “localhost”, and that this is the magic that IIS Express is using.

So why doesn’t it work with Nancy? It turns out that I was missing one thing: in the self-hosting code, Nancy transforms “localhost” into “+” (meaning all available addresses), which then falls under the purview of the URL ACL mechanism.

Fortunately, this behaviour can be controlled by the HostConfiguration.RewriteLocalhost flag passed to the NancyHost constructor:

var configuration = new HostConfiguration { RewriteLocalhost = false };
var host = new NancyHost(configuration, new Uri(prefix));
host.Start();

… and now it all works fine. I’ll be updating my VS extension in the next few days to remove the dependency on IIS Express, which will reduce the number of moving parts, simplify the packaging process, and make it easier to enable some other features that I’ve been thinking about.