gen_fsm learnings, part 2

2013-11-11 16:12:36 +0000

handle_event and handle_sync_event

OK. So, looping back round, just what are handle_event and handle_sync_event for?

The documentation states that handle_event is called from send_all_state_event; it’s intended to handle events for which every state does the same thing. Similarly, handle_sync_event is called from sync_send_all_state_event.

This, initially, seems odd: how is the caller supposed to know which states do the same thing?

However, thinking about it some more: the caller’s not supposed to call the gen_fsm functions directly. The caller’s not supposed to know that we implemented our state machine using gen_fsm.

This means that we should have provided send_alpha and send_beta functions (or similar), and we should write our unit tests like this:

alpha_to_beta_test() ->
  {ok, Pid} = ab_fsm:start_link(),
  ok = sync_send_beta(Pid).

alpha_to_alpha_test() ->
  {ok, Pid} = ab_fsm:start_link(),
  ok = sync_send_alpha(Pid),
  ok = sync_send_alpha(Pid).

beta_to_alpha_test() ->
  {ok, Pid} = ab_fsm:start_link(),
  ok = sync_send_beta(Pid),
  ok = sync_send_alpha(Pid).

beta_to_beta_test() ->
  {ok, Pid} = ab_fsm:start_link(),
  ok = sync_send_beta(Pid),
  ok = sync_send_beta(Pid).

…and we should add the following functions:

sync_send_alpha(Pid) ->
  gen_fsm:sync_send_event(Pid, alpha).
sync_send_beta(Pid) ->
  gen_fsm:sync_send_event(Pid, beta).

Synchronous events

You’ll note that we’ve been using the gen_fsm:sync_send_event function. This makes a synchronous call to Module:StateName/3, such as:

alpha(_Event, _From, StateData) ->
  {reply, ok, alpha, StateData}.

Most of the time, you’ll want to return {reply, Result, NextStateName, NewStateData} – check the [documentation][gen-fsm-ms3] for other possible return values.

The Result is the second member of the tuple, and is returned to the caller, synchronously. This is the ok we’ve been expecting in our unit tests. We could have written instead:

alpha(beta, _From, StateData) ->
  {reply, moved_to_beta, beta, StateData}.

…and our test would have looked like this:

moved_to_beta = send_beta(Pid).

Asynchronous events

If, instead, we decide to use asynchronous events, we should use gen_fsm:send_event, as follows:

send_alpha(Pid) ->
  ok = gen_fsm:send_event(Pid, alpha).

That is: send_event sends the event asynchronously, and returns ok immediately. Instead of calling Module:StateName/3, which – you’ll recall – is provided with the caller’s Pid, it calls Module:StateName/2:

alpha(beta, StateData) ->
  {next_state, beta, StateData}.

I guess that you’d decide which events are synchronous, and which are asynchronous ahead of time, based on whether you need a reply, or whether you need to hold something up.